This passage expresses Voegelin’s view that the sources of man’s knowledge of the reality in which he participates are the experiences of faith, hope, love, and trust. It includes the management of experiences that are inherent in existence, such as the completion (and therefore the non-completion) of processes … which from the outside may seem to be purely physiological but which belong to infant psychology and take place in a complex psychological field, determined by the awareness and empathy of the mother . It hides and protects it, and it reacts to the . . [1]  This exploration is both an activity of the logos and a means of increasing a man’s participation in it:  “The soul has a logos that augments itself.” (B 115)  The process is unlimited because the logos itself is without limit:  “You could not find the limits of the soul, even if you traveled every path, so deep is its logos.” (B 45)  It seems to me that this play with the meanings of logos as both a divine and a human thing involves mythical symbolism in same way as Aristotle’s play with the term nous. Freud and Lacan, perhaps moderated by his to various kinds and degrees of failure of holding, handling and object-presenting at the earliest stage. message by a parent to a child. . Winnicott, D.W. (1935), “The Manic Defense,” in Through Pediatrics to Psychoanalysis, 129-144. . These anxieties are aspects of the most primitive human anxiety of “annihilation” (Winnicott 1960, p. 47). Play and the Freedom of the Philosopher’s Myth. . * Emotions Concetti chiave della teoria di Winnicott ... IL CONTENIMENTO (HOLDING) E LA MANIPOLAZIONE (HANDLING) Una delle più importanti funzioni di una madre buona è quella di favorire, dunque, il processo di integrazione dell’Io del bambino, attraverso la sua identificazione con esso (relazione egoica) e il contenimento (holding). . Relations with the world are conducted by what Laing calls “the false-self system.”  The schizoid condition is accompanied by a feeling of being unreal and the absence of intimate relationships. Here the new human being is in the position of creating the world. rather than the shock of being 'dropped'. It is in the total set-up.” (Winnicott 1952a, p. 99), Winnicott uses the terms holding, handling, and object-presenting to refer to three aspects of the ordinary, good-enough mother’s care of her infant that are necessary conditions of his primitive emotional development. [T]his core never communicates with the world of perceived objects, . * Closing techniques “(p. 60). Voegelin, E. (1974), Order and History, vol. This interpretation of Winnicott’s use of the term inner psychic reality is supported by a poem entitled “Sleep” which he wrote near the end of his life (C. Winnicott 1978, p. 32): The poem’s metaphors indicate that Winnicott was aware of the depth as the source of the symbols that emerge in the psyche and of the necessity of diving into that depth in order to recover the luminosity of existence. * Objection handling Voegelin inferred from this view that we commit what Whitehead calls the fallacy of misplaced concreteness if we interpret our language of subject-verb-object as reality itself. C. Winnicott, R. Shepherd, and M. Davis (Reading, MA:  Addison-Wesley). Hughes, G. (1998), “Twilight of the Gods:  The Problem of Divine Presence in the World After Differentiation” (unpublished paper delivered at the meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston, MA, September). transparent for the mystery of existence over the abyss of nonexistence.” (p. 72), For Voegelin, philosophical symbols that seek to explicate the consubstantiality of man and the reality of which he is a part, including the reality of other men, have their source in the primary experience and emerge from and are continuous with more compact mythical symbols. * Creative techniques The transitional object and the transitional phenomena start each human being off with what will always be important for them, i.e. How we change what others think, feel, believe and do, | This included views Awards | With one set of meanings he points to what Voegelin calls the primary experience of the cosmos, which Winnicott himself calls the experience of being. The three capacities develop synchronically. . It is only virtually or potentially either object or subject as yet.” (James 1904, p. 23)  Our attention to the more differentiated language of a subject of cognition intending objects must not obscure the fact that, in addition to apprehending reality through the mediation of language, we also experience reality immediately as what James calls a “simple that.”  In James’ view, “experience . For Winnicott, this picture of the infant at the beginning of life as poised between being and annihilation is more faithful to clinical experience than Freud’s view of the infant from the start as a whole person who can experience hunger and the frustration of that instinct. After the early stage of connection with the sees the key role of the 'good enough' mother as adaptation to the (Voegelin 1956, p. xiv)  The philosopher does not start his inquiry from scratch but from the symbols in his social environment that have been developed to articulate that order. . Help |, More pages: | . At about seven to nine months there emerges a third organizing experiential perspective, which Stern calls a sense of a subjective self and other. . (Winnicott 1971a, p. 102). * Using humor * Using repetition . Winnicott, C. (1978), “D.W.W. By “participation,” which is the key symbol in his philosophy, Voegelin means “the reality of being in contact with reality outside myself.” (Voegelin 1989, p. 72)  For Voegelin, as for Gabriel Marcel and Karl Jaspers, the experience of participation involves our whole being and is, therefore, not an intellectual problem to be solved but a mystery to be lived. We soon feel lonely if we are isolated I believe the term subjective has the same range of meaning for Winnicott as do the terms fantasy and illusion. He could not recognize his ignorance as such, were he not in the throes of a restless urge to escape from ignorance (pheugein ten agnoian) in order to seek knowledge (episteme). The mother can be viewed as a 'container' for the infant's bad objects, as I have always been quite struck, for example, by the passage in Racker’s classic work on the psychoanalytic process (Racker 1968) in which he appeals to St. Paul’s symbol agape in 1 Corinthians 13 in support of his view that, for healing to occur, the therapist must have faith that the client’s actions have a positive intention. This interpretation is consistent with Winnicott’s insistence on the experiential unity of the moment of illusion for the infant. Winnicott describes the holding environment as a developmental stage in which the child and mother are one entity, as yet undifferentiated in the infant’s consciousness. Huizinga, J. adaptation failures and develops a pattern corresponding to the pattern of In an important essay, “Equivalences of Experience and Symbolization in History,” Voegelin relies on the Heraclitan symbols to search meditatively for the experiential constant that is the source of validity of our judgments that mythical, philosophical, or revelatory symbols are equivalent (Voegelin 1970). As the early Hellenic philosophers explored the order of the psyche, they achieved this critical awareness, which enabled them to play with mythical symbols with greater freedom than their predecessors. We can only illuminate our participation in being from within through the analogical symbols and narratives of myth and the more differentiated symbols of philosophy, revelation, and mysticism. . 161-2). Aristotle assumes that the apprehending participation of the human nous in the ground of being is only made possible by “the preceding genetic participation of the divine in the human nous” (p. 150). The adaptive mother presents an object or a manipulation that meets the baby’s needs, and so the baby begins to need just what the mother presents. . Nei primi mesi di vita vi sono bisogni vitali, come nutrirsi ed essere al sicuro, questi bisogni con l’età diventano sempre più sottili ma rimane fondamentale la possibilità che vengano soddisfatti. I think that most of the time he uses fantasy to mean the capacity to symbolize, and he uses illusion to mean the sense that a symbol is identical to what it symbolizes. where they realize their dependence and learn about loss. During this transitional period the infant does not have a subjective sense of self and other and is not yet able to be aware of and think about himself, his symbols, and the objects they symbolize as separate parts of reality (Ogden 1990). Winnicott Changes |, Settings: | Such communication “alone gives the feeling of real” and is, “like the [silent] music of the spheres, absolutely personal. Basel:  Burg, 1944.”  Journal of Politics 10:  179-87. He studied political philosophy at the University of Virginia and clinical social work at the University of Maryland. * Beliefs A key thesis for Winnicott is that, when the infant has the experience of being to a sufficient degree, the maturational processes of integration and personalization can take place, he can begin to find the objects that the mother presents, and he can begin to elaborate imaginatively the bodily processes and the subjective life of himself and others. baby, thus giving it a sense of control, . These experiences emerge from the good-enough mother’s experience of being. The experience is of a cosmos in the sense that reality is experienced as an embracing oneness that comprises all that is. * Marketing * Human Resources Feedback | The pairs of symbols “true self-false self” and “first reality-second reality” are equivalent to the Platonic pairs “philosopher-philodoxer” and “episteme-doxa.”  Voegelin refers to the task of the philosopher as gaining “the stature of his true self as a man under God.” (Voegelin 1969, p. 216)  The true self exists in open participation in the first reality of the tension toward the divine ground. * Sociology Robert S. (Robin) Seiler, Jr., is a psychotherapist in private practice in Maryland. Guestbook | * Groups Winnicott, D.W. (1970), “Living Creatively,” in Home is Where We Start From, 39-54. Impingements caused by inadequate holding and handling result in late or incomplete development of the capacities for integration and personalization. In the first of the two essays, Voegelin argues that Hegel is a representative modern thinker in that his existence is characterized by the coexistence of two selves. I tre stadi evolutivi elencati sopra corrispondono, per Winnicott, a tre importanti fenomeni psichici: l’integrazione (tenere in braccio), la personalizzazione (manipolare) e la relazione oggettuale, che corrisponde alla presentazione degli oggetti (object presenting) . The mother has a breast and the power to produce milk, and the idea that she would like to be attacked by a hungry baby. He sees the micro-interactions between the mother and child as central to the The comparison indicates the remarkable overlap between the experiences articulated and the areas of reality explored by the philosopher and the psychoanalyst. Ogden (1990) provides the example of a mother helping a boy of two-and-one-half years take a bath, after his head has gotten under the water on a previous evening, by inviting him to “pour me some tea.”  Emerging from a tense, fearful state, the boy picks up an empty shampoo bottle and begins to use it to pour “milk” into his mother’s “teacup” to cool her “tea.”  The child has a sufficient capacity to experience being to be able to relax and become absorbed in the drama of the play. Winnicott, D.W. (1963a), “Communicating and Not Communicating Leading to a Study of Certain Opposites,” in The Maturational Processes and the Facilitating Environment, 179-192. Il observe notamment la façon dont la mère prend soin de l’enfant (« nursing »). This holding environment allows the infant to transition at its own rate to a more autonomous position. after guilt engendered by more Freudian approaches. Contact | As he put this insight ten years later: ” . * Job-finding :  A Reflection,” in Grolnick, S.A., and Barkin, L., eds., Between Reality and Fantasy:  Winnicott’s Concepts of Transitional Objects and Phenomena (Northvale, NJ:  Jason Aronson), 17-33. . L’IO, che è in via di sviluppo nel bambino, viene consolidato in relazione al rapporto con l’ambiente esterno. In my view, what the good-enough mother makes possible in what Winnicott calls “the moment of illusion” is simply the experience of participation. – Changes Winnicott argues that the good-enough mother’s holding, handling, and object presenting together enable the infant to develop the capacity to interact with the mother and others as separate, whole persons. Voegelin interprets the history of ancient Hellenic philosophy from Heraclitus to Aristotle as the gradual discovery and symbolization of the order of man’s participation in being. "In the cases on which my work is based there has been what I . La mère a également un rôle fondamental concernant l’existence psychosomatique de son bébé. The exasperating dishonesty of the Second Realities is the factor of play that holds the imaginator’s personality together; if he were to believe seriously in what he says, his personality would fall apart and he would become a neurotic [psychotic] case. This assumption creates a philosophical problem:  how does the infant move from that state to subsequent states in which he experiences himself as separate from but related to others (Ogden 1990)? But it is more than a physiological process: “The term ‘holding’ . * Critical Theory However, one gets a clear sense from the poem above, from Winnicott’s writings, and from the immense creativity of his clinical work that he had a deep experience of the transcendent source of creative human living. What enters the area of consciousness has to assume the “form of object” even if it is not object. (Winnicott 1953, p. 12). By nous he understands both the human capacity for knowing questioning about the ground and also the ground of being itself, which is experienced as the directing mover of questions.”  (Voegelin 1966, pp. . In object relations theory, Winnicott believed that there was no such thing as an infant, ... such as inadequate holding, handling and object-presenting (Winnicott, 1962; 1963). le holding le handling l’object-presenting le vrai-self le faux-self La préoccupation maternelle primaire (1956) Dès la naissance, l'enfant se trouve dans un environnement humain spécifique, marqué par l'état psychique très particulier de la mère, qui consiste en un repli total de sa libido sur elle- – Webmasters, | 1.a) the role of pneumatic experiences, in Voegelin’s sense, in the formation of the order of the soul of the philosopher, the psychotherapist, and the person who seeks healing in the company of either of them. Holding, handling, and object presenting each support the infant’s development of a distinct psychological capacity that Winnicott believes to be fundamental to healthy living. adaptation to her infant's needs, and as time proceeds she adapts less and less In this period the infant is transitioning from having the moment of illusion in the first sense noted above to beginning to be able to use symbols to generate illusions in the second sense. As I understand it, the term “transcendence” refers most broadly to those experiences in which, as we focus our attention on any aspect of reality, a “more” emerges into our awareness. This metaphor continues the symbolism of Plato’s Laws of God playing with man as his puppets or as pieces on a board, and of man conducting his life as a serious play in following the pull of the golden cord in the psyche. Throughout our lives we are dependent on . . can now be seen to be a defence . instauri l'io sono. Hence, the symbols of the myth, in which the reverberations are expressed, can be defined as the refraction of the unconscious in the medium of objectifying consciousness. Voegelin argues that this person need not be a philosopher but must possess common sense (Voegelin 1978). Why is this so? From questioning restlessness there arises man’s desire to know (tou eidenai oregontai). handling and object-presenting. The mother's role is thus first to create illusion that allows early He was raised a Methodist and converted to Anglicanism while at Cambridge, but apparently did not attend services regularly as an adult. I est à l'origine de l'affirmation qu'il n'y a pas d'enfant tout seul. L'handling (manipolazione), favorisce la personalizzazione che produce un insediamento della psiche nel soma. . For Voegelin play is an irreducible element of man’s participation in reality. In 1942 he jumped up in a professional meeting and exclaimed, “There’s no such thing as a baby!”  Reflecting on this outburst, he realized that he had come to believe that, at the beginning of life, there is no such thing as an individual, only an individual related to an interpersonal environment. Without that premise, the noetic experiences would remain a biographical curiosity; only with the premise as background do they attain their ordering function in society and history, inasmuch as the premise is the basis of the claim that they are representative and binding for all men. Maida Vale, London, of being found instead of being placed by the subject in the world. référant aux dimensions de la fonction maternelle que Winnicott découpe en « holding », « handling » et « object-presenting », mais en nous autorisant à en examine les éléments sépa ément, c’est-à-dire en nous penchant exclusivement sur la troisième dimension, celle de la présentation de l’objet. This helped popularize his teachings, especially . In this way the baby comes to feel confident in being able to create objects and to create the actual world. Psycho-Analytical Symposium (pp. Analyzing Comte in the second essay, Voegelin indicates that the fantasy of the second reality is created through the “imaginative projecting of … [the] contracted self.” (Voegelin 1969, p. 143)  In one part of his experience, the thinker has withdrawn from and lost contact with the tension of existence. En términos del psicoanalista británico D. W. Winnicott, “handling” (manipulación, manejo, asistencia corporal) es el modo adecuado de manipular y cuidar corporalmente a un bebé; un modo que lo favorece, sobre todo, en su desarrollo espontáneo, en su proceso de personalización. * Stress Management Analysis | Mythical Symbolism and the Primary Experience of the Cosmos. The centre of gravity of the being does not start off in the individual. For Heraclitus a man can augment his psyche by exploring it. According to Voegelin, mythical symbolism and its refinement in more abstract metaphors are the precise instruments for articulating the single experiential constant that is expressed in all forms of symbolism of human participation in being. . by D. W. Winnicott Tavistock Publications ©1971 Chapter 9 Mirror-role of Mother ... Holding 2. This aspect of Winnicott’s work is the most important psychoanalytic theory of culture since Freud and has elicited the interest of scholars in disciplines such as literary criticism and theology. Winnicott, D.W. (1971a), Human Nature (New York:  Schocken Books, 1988). Object-presenting. – Quotes Yet Winnicott claims that the infant experiences the “moment of illusion” from the beginning, when the mother first presents her breast and herself to him. self disorders' in the child. * Propaganda By moving away from . International 150). Holding and Handling Leading to Integration and Personalization. When impingements do not force the infant or young child to become prematurely and traumatically aware of his separateness and dependence, he can experience being and explore the interpersonal and physical world around him through play. . Second, he identifies this transcendent dimension of the person as his essence:  it is truly personal, gives the feeling of being real, and is the source of all healthy communication. call a true self hidden, protected by a false self. Through his reliability and concern, the therapist enables the client to relax “in conditions of trust based on experience.” (Winnicott 1971b, p. 56)  This process involves a therapeutic regression to the dependent state of early development that was disrupted by impingements and annihilation anxieties (Winnicott 1954). Handling 3. and Other Late Unpublished Writings, 111-162. Mobile layout | It would be wrong, I think, to interpret “inner or personal psychic reality” as the unconscious in the sense in which it is used by Freud or Melanie Klein, the two psychoanalysts whom Winnicott always implicitly addresses in his writings. teacher, Melanie Klein. environmental failure. The infant has “hope” about his state of extreme dependence (p. 30). Ses théories sur les relations précoces (Dyade), sur le portage (Holding) et sur les soins apportés à bébé (Handling) sont d'une richesse inouie: une véritable caisse à outils que tout parent devrait avoir pour s'occuper de bébé! . One cannot teach a mother to hold, handle, and present herself to her baby sensitively and lovingly, but she can discover the capacity to be sensitive and loving if she trusts herself and her baby and has faith in their ability to get to know each other and to get along well. . . (p. 27) Thus, from the beginning the infant experiences self and other emerging, and this experience continues to be present when his core sense of self and other emerges. The symbols, therefore, do not denote an unconscious reality as an object, but, rather, are the unconscious reality itself, broken in the medium of consciousness.” (p. 192). I think it is not out of place to say that the infant is ready to be creative. * Warfare It is important to note, I think, that he was an artistically gifted person who drew, painted, played the piano, and wrote poetry all his life. The infant relates to his mother as a separate, whole person, assumes that she has an inside, and is starting to be concerned about her and her moods. For Winnicott psychotherapy is a form of mutual play that occurs in the potential space between the therapist and the client. the ‘pure’ experience. inner duplicity; and the separation of it into consciousness and content comes, not by way of subtraction, but by way of addition . Winnicott identifie trois fonctions maternelles, indispensables pour le développement harmonieux de l'enfant : - l'object-presenting (la présentation de l'objet) : la mère, en étant là, présente au bon moment, permet à l'enfant de lui attribuer une existence réelle mais aussi d'éprouver l'illusion qu'il crée l'objet. For Voegelin, at the opposite end of the spectrum of mental health from the true self of the man under God is the man who no longer is homo ludens because his psyche has lost touch with the truth of the Cosmos. Beyond this area extends the reality of the soul, vast and darkening in depth, whose movements reach into the small area that is organized as the conscious subject. others, seeking company and belonging. In using these symbols, Winnicott is assuming that the infant’s experience is the same as his own. At about two months the emerging self and other constellations coalesce into an organizing experiential perspective that Stern calls a sense of a core self and other. That work reflects the influence of Winnicott’s ideas, and Winnicott read it in typescript and praised it highly in correspondence with Laing. ” (p. 9)  Following James, Voegelin takes the view that both dimensions of experience-the immediate and the symbolically mediated-are real and must be acknowledged if we are to understand the knowing-from-within that we achieve through symbols. Reflection on such intracosmic analogies reveals, according to Voegelin, an important truth about the relationship between mythical symbolism and the primary experience of the cosmos. 1, Israel and Revelation (Baton Rouge, LA:  Louisiana State University Press). Home | Voegelin, E. (1989), Autobiographical Reflections (Baton Rouge, LA:  Louisiana State University Press).