Given the substantial oil wealth, water is provided almost for free. [63] Mesopotamian inscribed clay tablets suggests that, in the early period of Dilmun, a form of hierarchical organized political structure existed. Ma vediamo quali sono le città più importanti. In June 2014, the Council of Ministers approved a law that gives the Saudi Commission for Tourism and National Heritage the means to protect Saudi Arabia's ancient relics and historic sites. Religion taught in this manner is also a compulsory subject for all University students. In the 1994 FIFA World Cup under the leadership of Jorge Solari, Saudi Arabia beat both Belgium and Morocco in the group stage before falling to defeat Sweden in the round of 16. [455] The CIA Factbook estimated that as of 2013[update] foreign nationals living in Saudi Arabia made up about 21% of the population. [321] Saudi Arabia received 41 percent of UK arms exports in 2010–14. Saudi Arabia is divided into 13 regions[363] (Arabic: مناطق إدارية‎; manatiq idāriyya, sing. [161] In a country that is said to "belong" to the royal family and is named for them,[53] the lines between state assets and the personal wealth of senior princes are blurred. [57] The Arabian peninsula is regarded as a central figure in the understanding of hominin evolution and dispersals. [328], Human Rights organizations such as Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch and Freedom House condemn both the Saudi criminal justice system and its severe punishments. the start of each lunar month determined not ahead of time by astronomical calculation, but only after the crescent moon is sighted by the proper religious authorities. Sport Magazine. It is composed of a chairman and 60 members—all chosen by the King. Clash Over Khashoggi Case", "Top U.S. Among its most productive crops are watermelon, grapes, citrus fruits, onions, squash and tomatoes. Tuo Benessere [344][345][346], In December 2019, Saudi Arabia organized a big-budget electronic dance music festival, MDL Beast to the kingdom, "the region's biggest music event". [16] Following his death in 632, his followers rapidly expanded the territory under Muslim rule beyond Arabia, conquering huge and unprecedented swathes of territory (from the Iberian Peninsula in west to modern day Pakistan in east) in a matter of decades. The kingdom has a long-standing military relationship with Pakistan, it has long been speculated that Saudi Arabia secretly funded Pakistan's atomic bomb programme and seeks to purchase atomic weapons from Pakistan, in near future. [142], Women's sport is controversial due to the suppression of female participation in sport by conservative Islamic religious authorities,[537] however this restriction has eased slightly in recent years. [392] In November 2005, Saudi Arabia was approved as a member of the World Trade Organization. [3] Other estimates are 30%[426] or 33%[427]), As recently as the early 1960s, Saudi Arabia's slave population was estimated at 300,000. The Saudi Foreign Ministry retaliated with an equal statement saying, "it will respond with greater action," indicating the kingdom's "influential and vital role in the global economy." The ulema have also been a key influence in major government decisions, for example the imposition of the oil embargo in 1973 and the invitation to foreign troops to Saudi Arabia in 1990. More than 1200 species of fish[361] have been recorded in the Red Sea, and around 10 percent of these are found nowhere else. | Fahd continued to develop close relations with the United States and increased the purchase of American and British military equipment. King Abdullah Economic City) to be completed by 2020, in an effort to diversify the economy and provide jobs. However, experts such as Joan Oates had the opportunity to see the Ubaid period sherds in eastern Arabia and consequently conclude that the sherds dates to the last two phases of Ubaid period (period three and four), while handful examples could be classified roughly as either Ubaid 3 or Ubaid 2. Women typically receive college instruction in segregated institutions. Prior to 29 June 2013, the weekend was Thursday-Friday, but was shifted to better serve the Saudi economy and its international commitments. [465], On 13 August 2020, Human Rights Watch reported dozens of Euthopian migrants who had been forcibly expelled by Houthi forces, under the pretext of COVID-19 measures, were killed and detained by Saudi border guards. Islamic dietary laws are enforced: pork is not allowed and other animals are slaughtered in accordance with halal. [600][601] The Saudi religious studies curriculum is taught outside the Kingdom via Saudi-linked madrasah, schools, and clubs throughout the world. This also led to Saudi Arabia recalling its ambassador to Sweden. [240] On 20 May 2017, President Donald Trump and King Salman signed a series of letters of intent for Saudi Arabia to purchase arms from the United States totaling US$110 billion immediately,[241] and $350 billion over 10 years. [citation needed], In 1973, Saudi Arabia led an oil boycott against the Western countries that supported Israel in the Yom Kippur War against Egypt and Syria. From the 18th century onward, Wahhabi fundamentalism discouraged artistic development inconsistent with its teaching. Most of the remainder of what became Saudi Arabia reverted to traditional tribal rule. Atheism or "calling into question the fundamentals of the Islamic religion on which this country is based" is considered a terrorist crime. Cosa fare e cosa vedere in inverno in Valtellina tra borghi, monumenti e piste da sci. Partiamo alla scoperta dell’Arabia Saudita e delle sette città principali da visitare, ricche di storia, tradizione, cultura, ma anche di modernità. [329] Human Rights Watch, in a 2008 report, noted that a criminal procedure code had been introduced for the first time in 2002, but it lacked some basic protections and, in any case, had been routinely ignored by judges. [499] Shia also face systematic discrimination in employment, education, the justice system according to Human Rights Watch. Centered in Tabouk, it stretched from Wadi Arabah in the north to the area of al-Wejh in the south. The Al Jouf farms are located in Sakaka, a city in the north-western part of Saudi Arabia, which is a deeply-rooted in history. [388], OPEC (the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) limits its members' oil production based on their "proven reserves." As in other Arab countries of the Arabian Peninsula, machbūs (kabsa), a rice dish with lamb, chicken, fish or shrimp, is among the national dishes as well as the dish mandi (food). [485]), Until 2016, the kingdom used the lunar Islamic calendar, not the international Gregorian calendar,[486] but in 2016 the kingdom announced its switch to the Gregorian calendar for civil purposes. [189] Although the Al ash-Sheikh's domination of the ulema has diminished in recent decades,[190] they still hold the most important religious posts and are closely linked to the Al Saud by a high degree of intermarriage. The enforcement of the anti-corruption laws is selective and public officials engage in corruption with impunity. The creation of the Consultative Council in the early 1990s did not satisfy demands for political participation, and, in 2003, an annual National Dialogue Forum was announced that would allow selected professionals and intellectuals to publicly debate current national issues, within certain prescribed parameters. [420] Most Saudis live in the Hejaz (35%), Najd (28%), and the Eastern Province (15%). [126] In response, King Abdullah announced on 22 February 2011 a series of benefits for citizens amounting to $36 billion, of which $10.7 billion was earmarked for housing. [199][200] The system has also been criticized for being arcane,[201] lacking in some of the safeguards of justice, and unable to deal with the modern world. Tutti i contenuti sono prodotti da creators indipendenti tramite la piattaforma, Zungri: cosa vedere nel paesino calabrese, Zona rossa: i paesi da vedere dopo l’emergenza Coronavirus, Zona del Barolo: cosa vedere tra i comuni, Zibello: cosa vedere, cosa fare e cosa mangiare, Canosa di Puglia: cosa vedere nella città archeologica, Luci di Natale, Tokyo 2020: le luminarie più belle, Città più futuristiche del mondo: quali sono, Machu Picchu: il sito turistico a zero emissioni, Palazzo del Quirinale: storia, curiosità e visita, Necropoli San Giovenale: informazioni e storia, Valtellina: cosa vedere in inverno tra i borghi innevati, Le Sea Islands degli Stati Uniti: dove si trovano e cosa vedere, Bengasi. [296], On 17 September 2020, The Guardian released an exclusive report revealing that Saudi Arabia was paving the way for domestic production of nuclear fuel. Al-Magar statues were made from local stone, and it seems that the statues were fixed in a central building that might have had a significant role on the social and religious life of the inhabitants. Saudi Arabia has one of the highest percentages of military expenditure in the world, spending around 8% of its GDP in its military, according to the 2020 SIPRI estimate. In December 2011, the Saudi interior ministry arrested three reporters and held them for almost two weeks for questioning after they uploaded a video on the topic to YouTube. However, the unexpected impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the economy, along with Saudi Arabia's poor human rights records, laid unforeseen challenges before the development plans of the Kingdom, where some of the programs under ‘Vision 2030’ were also expected to be affected. [129][130], Although male-only municipal elections were held on 29 September 2011,[131][132] Abdullah allowed women to vote and be elected in the 2015 municipal elections, and also to be nominated to the Shura Council. "[338] This "tolerance and moderation" has been called into question by the Baltimore Sun, based on the reports from Amnesty International regarding Raif Badawi,[339] and in the case of a man from Hafr al-Batin sentenced to death for rejecting Islam. The documents showed Saudi Arabia as allegedly implementing a ‘sportswashing’ strategy, inclusive of meetings and official calls with supreme authorities of associations like the Major League Soccer (MLS), World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE), National Basketball Association (NBA). [463] In November 2013, Saudi Arabia expelled thousands of illegal Ethiopian residents from the Kingdom. [457] There are around 100,000 Westerners in Saudi Arabia, most of whom live in compounds or gated communities. [453], In its 2017 religious freedom report, the US State Department named Saudi Arabia a Country of Particular Concern (CPC). [111] In 1979, two events occurred which greatly concerned the government,[113] and had a long-term influence on Saudi foreign and domestic policy. The government has also made an attempt at "Saudizing" the economy, replacing foreign workers with Saudi nationals with limited success.[393]. [106], Ibn Saud avoided involvement in the Arab Revolt, and instead continued his struggle with the Al Rashid. La moschea ospita la tomba di Maometto e di alcuni dei suoi successori. [467], Saudi Arabia has centuries-old attitudes and traditions, often derived from Arab civilization. Most trials are held in secret. However, F1’s decision of letting Saudi Arabia host the next season of race is expected to receive criticism considering the nation’s human rights abuse record and the alleged use of F1 with the intent of sportswashing.[546]. Arabia Saudita città principali. In 2005 the armed forces had the following personnel: the army, 75,000; the air force, 18,000; air defense, 16,000; the navy, 15,500 (including 3,000 marines); and the SANG had 75,000 active soldiers and 25,000 tribal levies. [221] The embargo caused an oil crisis with many short- and long-term effects on global politics and the global economy. [108] On 23 September 1932, the two kingdoms of the Hejaz and Nejd were united as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia,[80] and that date is now a national holiday called Saudi National Day. He was succeeded by his brother, King Fahd, who added the title "Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques" to his name in 1986 in response to considerable fundamentalist pressure to avoid use of "majesty" in association with anything except God. Media in category "Cities in Saudi Arabia" The following 17 files are in this category, out of 17 total. [115] After his accession to the throne in 2005, King Abdullah took steps to reduce the powers of the ulema, for instance transferring control over girls' education to the Ministry of Education. [439][440][441][442][443] The official and dominant form of Sunni Islam in Saudi Arabia is commonly known as Wahhabism[444] (proponents prefer the name Salafism, considering Wahhabi derogatory[445]), which was founded in the Arabian Peninsula by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab in the 18th century. That's a Travesty", "Austria calls for EU-wide halt in arms sales to Saudi Arabia", "Germany extends ban on arms sales to Saudi Arabia | DW | 28 March 2019", "The erosion of Saudi Arabia's image among its neighbours", "Early human migration written in stone tools : Nature News", "Al Magar - Paleolithic & Neolithic History", "Desert finds challenge horse taming ideas", "Carved in stone: were the Arabs the first to tame the horse? According to the World Bank, approximately 14.3 million people visited Saudi Arabia in 2012, making it the world's 19th-most-visited country. Domesticated animals include the legendary Arabian horse, Arabian camel, sheep, goats, cows, donkeys, chickens etc. La seva capital és Riad. Higher education has expanded rapidly, with large numbers of Universities and colleges being founded particularly since 2000. Pompeo has asked Saudi Arabia and the UAE to stop their airstrikes on populated areas in Yemen. [500] Non-Muslim festivals like Christmas and Easter are not tolerated at all,[501] although there are nearly a million Christians as well as Hindus and Buddhists among the foreign workers. [134][135][136], Saudi Arabia is an absolute monarchy. [14] The world's second-largest religion,[15] Islam, emerged in modern-day Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia to host Formula One race in 2021 in Jiddah. [146] Of these, the minority activists have been the most prominent threat to the government and have in recent years perpetrated a number of violent incidents in the country. [61], At the end of the 4th millennium BC, Arabia entered the Bronze Age after witnessing drastic transformations; metals were widely used, and the period was characterized by its 2 m high burials which was simultaneously followed by the existence of numerous temples, that included many free-standing sculptures originally painted with red colors. At trial, there is a presumption of guilt and the accused is often unable to examine witnesses and evidence or present a legal defense. [561] As of April 2014, Saudi authorities in the education ministry have been asked by the Shoura Council to consider lifting a state school ban on sports for girls with the proviso that any sports conform to Sharia rules on dress and gender segregation, according to the official SPA news agency. The royal family dominates the political system. Politically, the Midianite were described as having decentralized structure headed by five kings (Evi, Rekem, Tsur, Hur and Reba), the names appears to be toponyms of important Midianite settlements. Wadis, however, are very numerous. The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is widespread.[142]. Il visto di visita può essere ottenuto soltanto tramite un padrino in loco che effettui le apposite pratiche sul posto. In interior sunt munti abrupti, care ating 2.500 m in Muntii Asir. A number of scholars have suggested that Dilmun originally designated the eastern province of Saudi Arabia, notably linked with the major Dilmunite settlements of Umm an-Nussi and Umm ar-Ramadh in the interior and Tarout on the coast. [193], Because the judge is empowered to disregard previous judgments (either his own or of other judges) and may apply his personal interpretation of Sharia to any particular case, divergent judgements arise even in apparently identical cases,[194] making predictability of legal interpretation difficult. Saudi Arabia has a long list of outstanding orders for arms, including 27 more combat aircraft from the UK, 154 combat aircraft from the US and a large number of armoured vehicles from Canada. [381][382] [197] Final appeal from both Sharia courts and government tribunals is to the King and all courts and tribunals follow Sharia rules of evidence and procedure. Arabia Saudita, rite regnum Arabiae Sauditae (Arabice المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-'Arabiya as-Sa'udiya), est maxima civitas sui iuris in paeninsula Arabica constituta. [437][438] Estimates of the Sunni population of Saudi Arabia range between 75% and 90%, with the remaining 10–25% being Shia Muslim. [295] On 19 August 2020, Congressional Democrats asked the US secretary of state, Mike Pompeo, to provide information about China’s alleged role in building a uranium processing facility in Saudi Arabia. [160], The Saudi government and the royal family have often, over many years, been accused of corruption. [357], Wildlife includes the Arabian leopard,[358][359] wolf, striped hyena, mongoose, baboon, hare, sand cat, and jerboa. Although this is normally translated as "the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia" in English,[49] it literally means "the Saudi Arab kingdom",[50] or "the Arab Saudi Kingdom". [149] The key ministries are generally reserved for the royal family,[137] as are the 13 regional governorships. [610], Saudi Arabia has a life expectancy of 74.99 years (73.79 for males and 76.61 for females) according to the latest data for the year 2018 from the World Bank. ", "Tentative steps in Saudi Arabia: The king of Saudi Arabia shows some reformist credentials", "Support for shake-up of Saudi justice system", "When It Comes to Beheadings, ISIS Has Nothing Over Saudi Arabia", "Saudi Arabia to abolish flogging – supreme court", "In landmark decision, Saudi Arabia to eliminate flogging punishment", "Saudi Arabia declares all atheists are terrorists in new law to crack down on political dissidents", "Report: Saudi girl accepts lashing for assaulting headmistress", "The foreign policy of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia", "Arab leaders issue resolutions, emphasize Gaza reconstruction efforts", Saudis and Extremism: 'Both the Arsonists and the Firefighters', "Old friends US and Saudi Arabia feel the rift growing, seek new partners", America Is Complicit in the Carnage in Yemen, Rights group blasts U.S. "hypocrisy" in "vast flood of weapons" to Saudi Arabia, despite war crimes, "Obama: Congress veto override of 9/11 lawsuits bill 'a mistake, "We finally know what Hillary Clinton knew all along – US allies Saudi Arabia and Qatar are funding Isis", "Saudi Arabia launces air attacks in Yemen", "Yemen conflict: US 'could be implicated in war crimes, "CIA using Saudi base for drone assassinations in Yemen", "The bizarre alliance between the US and Saudi Arabia is finally fraying", "The U.S. Might Be Better Off Cutting Ties With Saudi Arabia", "Trump signs off on $110B arms deal in Saudi Arabia", "US-Saudi Arabia ink historic 10-year weapons deal worth $350 billion as Trump begins visit", "WikiLeaks: The Saudis' Close but Strained Ties with Pakistan", "Iraq's foreign militants 'come from US allies, "Saudi Arabia and China launch 'digital Silk Road, "China's Xi Jinping calls Saudi king with pledge to boost ties", "Saudi Arabia, China Sign Deals Worth Up to $65 Billion", "Closer Ties: China And Saudi Arabia Sign $70 Billion in New Deals", "Wang Yi and Foreign Minister Adel bin Ahmed Al-Jubeir of Saudi Arabia Co-host the Third Meeting of the Political and Diplomatic Sub-committee of China-Saudi Arabia High-level Joint Committee", "Saudi Arabia's Mohammed bin Salman Defends China's Use of Concentration Camps for Muslims During Visit to Beijing", "Saudi crown prince defends China's right to fight 'terrorism, "Saudi crown prince defends China's right to put Uighur Muslims in concentration camps", "Saudi crown prince defended China's imprisonment of a million Muslims in internment camps, giving Xi Jinping a reason to continue his 'precursors to genocide, "Which Countries Are For or Against China's Xinjiang Policies? [217] It plays a prominent role in the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, and in 2005 joined the World Trade Organization. [332], Saudi Arabia is widely accused of having one of the worst human rights records in the world. Saudi Arabia is not a signatory to the 1951 UN Refugee Convention. [468], The Hejazi region, where the Islamic holy cities of Mecca and Medina are located, is the destination of the Ḥajj pilgrimage, and often deemed to be the cradle of Islam. [604], According to the educational plan for secondary (high school) education 1435–1438 Hijri, students enrolling in the "natural sciences" path are required to take five religion subjects which are: Tawhid, Fiqh, Tafseer, Hadith and Islamic Education and Quran. (ʿĪd al-Fiṭr is "the biggest" holiday, a three-day period of "feasting, gift-giving and general letting go". "[305] Former CIA director James Woolsey described it as "the soil in which Al-Qaeda and its sister terrorist organizations are flourishing. [427] Indian: 1.5 million, Pakistani: 1.3 million,[456] Egyptian: 900,000, Yemeni: 800,000, Bangladeshi: 400,000, Filipino: 500,000, Jordanian/Palestinian: 260,000, Indonesian: 250,000, Sri Lankan: 350,000, Sudanese: 250,000, Syrian: 100,000 and Turkish: 80,000. [citation needed], Shortly before the advent of Islam, apart from urban trading settlements (such as Mecca and Medina), much of what was to become Saudi Arabia was populated by nomadic pastoral tribal societies. [518] Saudi Arabia also participates in the International Alliance for the Protection of Heritage in Conflict Areas (ALIPH), created in March 2017, with a contribution of 18.5 million euros. [115] Neither entirely succeeded as Islamism continued to grow in strength. Tutte le informazioni che servono per conoscere le principali luci di Natale di Tokyo del 2020. In December 1993, the Consultative Council was inaugurated. Kebabs and falafel are popular, as is shāwarmā (shawarma), a marinated grilled meat dish of lamb, mutton, or chicken. There were divisions within the family over who should succeed to the throne after the accession or earlier death of Prince Sultan. The ban includes penalties of a 12-month jail sentence and fines of up to 50,000 riyals ($13,000). | Saudi Arabia,[c] officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia,[d] is a country in Western Asia constituting the vast majority of the Arabian Peninsula. In arabo Riad significa “giardino”. [356], Saudi Arabia is home to five terrestrial ecoregions: Arabian Peninsula coastal fog desert, Southwestern Arabian foothills savanna, Southwestern Arabian montane woodlands, Arabian Desert, and Red Sea Nubo-Sindian tropical desert and semi-desert. [429][430], The official language of Saudi Arabia is Arabic. However, nepotism and patronage are widespread when doing business in the country. [279], Saudi Arabia halted new trade and investment dealings with Canada and suspended diplomatic ties in a dramatic escalation of a dispute over the kingdom's arrest of women's rights activist Samar Badawi on 6 August 2018. [285] The famine in Yemen is the direct result of the Saudi-led intervention and blockade of the rebel-held area. In the early 7th century, the Islamic prophet Muhammad united the population of Arabia and created a single Islamic religious polity. [353], Saudi Arabia's geography is dominated by the Arabian Desert, associated semi-desert and shrubland (see satellite image) and several mountain ranges and highlands. [185] The family is second in prestige only to the Al Saud (the royal family)[186] with whom they formed a "mutual support pact"[187] and power-sharing arrangement nearly 300 years ago. [86] Ufsurid rule was weakened after Persian rulers of Hormuz captured Bahrain and Qatif in 1320. "[327], According to the new report from the Department of Global Affairs, Canada sold record-breaking amount of military hardware to Saudi Arabia in 2019, despite its poor human rights record. [citation needed]. [227] In September 2016, the Congress passed the Justice Against Sponsors of Terrorism Act that would allow relatives of victims of the 11 September attacks to sue Saudi Arabia for its government's alleged role in the attacks. Instruments include the rabābah, an instrument not unlike a three-string fiddle, and various types of percussion instruments, such as the ṭabl (drum) and the ṭār (tambourine). Backs Saudi-Led Yemeni Bombing With Logistics, Spying, Saudi-led coalition strikes rebels in Yemen, inflaming tensions in region, "The Yemen war death toll is five times higher than we think – we can't shrug off our responsibilities any longer", 'Army of Conquest' rebel alliance pressures Syria regime, "Turkey and Saudi Arabia alarm the West by backing Islamist extremists the Americans had bombed in Syria", "CIA and Saudi weapons for Syrian rebels fueled black market arms trafficking, report says", "Saudi Arabia Hajj disaster death toll rises", "Death toll in Saudi haj disaster at least 2,070: Reuters tally", "Hajj stampede: Saudis face growing criticism over deaths", "From scrapped arms deals to pleas for democracy: why Sweden is the only Western country standing up to Saudi Arabia", "Egypt Protests could spread to other countries", "Top Saudi Officials Head to Qatar in Effort to Heal Rift", "Qatar-Gulf crisis: Your questions answered", "Saudi-Canada trade row: What business is at stake? [566] As of 2018, two women hold cabinet positions in the Saudi government: Dr Tamadur bint Youssef Al Ramah, who was appointed deputy labor minister that year; and Norah bint Abdallah Al Faiz, who became deputy minister of education in charge of women's affairs in 2009. É o segundo meirande dos países árabes, detrás de Alxeria, cunha área de 2 150 000km2 que abrangue case toda a Península Arábiga. [428] Slavery was officially abolished in 1962. [259] These fears were reflected in comments of King Abdullah,[183] who privately urged the United States to attack Iran and "cut off the head of the snake". The annual King's Camel Race, begun in 1974, is one of the sport's most important contests and attracts animals and riders from throughout the region. [119] However, Saudi Arabia condemned the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in 1990 and asked the US to intervene. Come per la Mecca, l’ingresso alla città santa di Medina è proibito a chi non professa la fede musulmana. Saudi judges tend to follow the principles of the Hanbali school of jurisprudence (or fiqh) found in pre-modern texts[192] and noted for its literalist interpretation of the Qur'an and hadith. [324] In 2017, Saudi Arabia signed a 110 billion dollar arms deal with the United States. Saudi Arabia 0-2 Sen... Saudi Arabia 0-2 Senegal (Korea Republic 2017) Monday, 22 May 2017. The film was based on the 2018 murder of Jamal Khashoggi by Saudi authorities. [611] Infant mortality in 2018 was 6 per 1,000. Saudi Arabia is bordered by Jordan and Iraq to the north, Kuwait to the northeast, Qatar, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates to the east, Oman to the southeast and Yemen to the south; it is separated from the Sinai (Egypt) in the north-west by the Gulf of Aqaba. [547], Although Saudi Arabia imposes a strict dress code on women throughout the country by using religious police, female anchors working for Al-Arabia news network which is partly owned by Prince Abdulaziz, the son of the late King Fahad, are prohibited from wearing a veil and are encouraged to adopt a Western dress code.